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Exosomes are an innovative biotechnological product that is increasingly used in medicine. One of the most common fields where the product uses is trichology. How to restore hair density, treat hair loss, stimulate hair growth — these questions often concern women and men.Problems that can be solved with exosomes:● androgenic alopecia;● diffuse alopecia;● hair loss after Сovid-19;● hair loss during and after pregnancy;● alopecia during breastfeeding.
Many trichologists consider exosomal products to be the most effective remedies for hair loss. The leading countries in the manufacture and use of exosomal products are South Korea and the United States.
Despite the prospects and growing popularity of the product, not all experts still know what are exosomes, what are the functions of exosomes and what are the secrets of their effectiveness. We are convinced that modern specialists should use the achievements of biotechnology in their practice. To do this, it is important to understand the main directions of modern biotechnology and their application in medicine. So we begin a series of articles through which aesthetic medicine specialists (cosmetologists, dermatologists, trichologists, anti-age therapists, etc.) and other doctors will be able to learn more about exosomes and their capabilities, understand their mechanism of action, and learn more about the requirements for their production.
Exosomes are nanosized bubbles (50-150 nm in diameter) that are formed inside any cell of any organism. Exosomes are 1000 times smaller than cells. They look like small bubbles surrounded by a lipid membrane and carry various molecules inside.
Exosomes are involved in intercellular communication, passing signals and molecules. They were discovered only at the end of the last century, and today they already occupy an important place among the promising innovative methods of treating dozens of diseases.
Despite their important and indispensable functions, exosomes were discovered not so long ago - less than 40 years ago. Scientists first thought that there were nanoparticles in the intercellular substance with their own functions in the 1940s. At the time, scientists considered exosomes to be platelet dust and were convinced that they "remove garbage from the body." The term "extracellular vesicle" was introduced in 1971 and the term "exosomes" — in 1983. The first study to show the direct role of exosomes in intercellular communication was published in 1996. In this study, scientists found that B-lymphocytes with the help of exosomes are able to activate T-lymphocytes and, thus, participate in the formation of the immune response. Only in 2006-2007 it became clear that exosomes contained different types of RNA, including miRNAs, whose transport could alter gene expression in target cells.
From that moment on, the study of exosomes became very popular, accompanied by an exponential growth of publications each year. Exosomes are secreted by various cell types isolated from blood plasma or other body fluids and are currently in the spotlight of researchers as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Particular attention is paid to the study of the functions of exosomes produced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Scientists have long understood that the therapeutic effect of MSCs is realized not so much by the direct integration of transplanted cells into the site of injury, as through the release of a number of biologically active substances, including exosomes. For the first time, the therapeutic effect of exosomes derived from MSCs was shown by Bruno with co-authors in 2009. The sediment fraction obtained by ultracentrifugation at 100,000 x g of conditioned MSC medium during transplantation in mice with acute renal failure showed a similar positive therapeutic effect as the transplantation of MSCs themselves. Further study of the obtained fraction revealed that the effect was caused by bubbles surrounded by a membrane with an average size of 135 nm, i.e. exosomes.
In 2013, scientists from the United States James Rothman and Randy Schekman and scientist from Germany Thomas Südhof were awarded the Nobel Prize for discovering the mechanisms of vesicular transport. This discovery allows us to understand how exosomes are formed in cells and how they are produced.
Today, these nanosized vesicles have become a large-scale and promising area of research. Their properties are studied for the treatment of dozens of diseases, including cancer.
The structure of exosomes depends on the type of cells that produced them and the general condition of the body. Usually, exosomes contain a wide range of biologically active molecules, including:● receptors;● enzymes;● transcription factors;● cytoskeleton proteins;● growth factors;● cytokines;● signal proteins;● nucleic acids (mRNA, tRNA, microRNA, DNA fragments);● lipids.
Since exosomes are produced by many cell types, they are found in almost all body fluids:
● peripheral blood;
● synovial fluid in the joints;
● amniotic fluid;
● breast milk.
The body's cells use various methods for communication, including extracellular vesicles. They serve as a kind of transport for enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, miRNA, mRNA and other signaling molecules and deliver them where they are needed. Vesicles resemble a postman's bag, because their main function is to deliver substances to the desired address.Participating in intercellular communication, exosomes perform the following functions:
● immunoregulatory;● regulation of cell death and proliferation;● induction of angiogenesis;● stimulation of regeneration.
Due to their functions, exosomes have become the center of attention of the scientific community. This revolutionary discovery will give humanity new knowledge about the human body and help develop innovative treatments. Biotechnology and bioengineering are already changing the world. Exosome treatment has every chance of becoming a standard therapy for many diseases. Read more about the causes of hair loss and effective remedies against hair loss on this page.